Ko Tanaka 国連事務総長を目指す男ブログ

紛争解決のための勉強メモ

(アフリカ紛争)チャドでなにがおきているの?

2021年2月18日

今日の注目

f:id:globalissues:20210218110643j:plain

Chad

今日はアフリカの国 Chad(チャド)についてです!

3分で読める本記事の構成は以下のとおりです。

独立後

1960年にフランスの植民地支配から独立した Chad(チャド)では今も、不安定な政治体制と紛争が続いています。

独立してすぐに一党制による政治がはじまったのですが、それに反対する勢力と政府のあいだで紛争がおこります。

民主化は成功したの?

こういった状況を民主政治によって解決しようと、1996年に多党制による選挙で Idriss Deby という人が大統領に選らばれ、平和にむけた取り組みも行われるのですが、反政府の勢力は残り続けます。

 

この国内の問題に加え、2003年に隣国スーダンの Darfurという地域でおきた紛争によって多くの難民が Chad(チャド)国内に押し寄せてきます。 これにより、スーダンとの関係も悪化していき、国連も MINURCATという平和維持活動をはじめます。

 

1996年に大統領にえらばれた Idriss Debyという人は憲法改正による大統領任期の延長や権力の増強をおこなっていて、今現在も Chad(チャド)の大統領を務めています。

Chad’s military has claimed victory in its weeks-long battle with northern rebels that led to the death of President Idriss Deby on the front line.
https://aje.io/cc4rv

Crowds in the capital N’Djamena cheered on Sunday as soldiers returned from the front line in a column of tanks and armoured vehicles.
https://aje.io/cc4rv

On Saturday, security forces fired tear gas to disperse a protest against the ruling military council. Led by Deby’s son Mahamat Idriss Itno, the council seized power after the former’s death, promising to oversee an 18-month transition to elections.
https://aje.io/cc4rv

Opposition politicians and civil society have denounced the takeover as a coup and called for supporters to take to the streets. At least five people were killed during a protest on April 27.
https://aje.io/cc4rv

French President Emmanuel Macron had signalled strong backing of the military during Deby’s funeral which he attended, sitting next to Deby’s son Mahamat. But the French government has since shifted, calling for a civilian national unity government.

But it is coming under international pressure to hand over power to civilians as soon as possible. The African Union has expressed “grave concern” about the military takeover, while France and regional powers are pushing for a civilian-military solution.
https://aje.io/9scgq
https://aje.io/cc4rv

The military council that took power in Chad last month after the shock death of veteran leader Idriss Deby has named a transitional government, the army spokesman said.
https://aje.io/ej58f

A military council seized power after Deby was killed as he visited troops fighting rebels on April 19. Opposition politicians have called the military takeover a “coup”, and one said on Monday the army had no right to pick a premier.

The military council headed by Deby’s son, Mahamat Idriss Deby, has said it will oversee an 18-month transition to elections.
https://aje.io/9scgq
https://aje.io/9scgq

The military has said Deby died after suffering injuries in fighting with rebels from the Libya-based Front for Change and Concord in Chad (FACT), which had launched an election day offensive on April 11.

The announcement of Deby’s death came only a day after he was proclaimed the winner of the presidential election, handing him a sixth term in office after 30 years of iron-fisted rule.

Chad’s armed forces announced last week that Deby had died from wounds suffered while leading soldiers on the front line against the rebel Libya-based Front for Change and Concord in Chad (FACT) group advancing from the north towards Ndjamena. He was 68.
https://aje.io/9scgq
https://aje.io/ej58f
https://aje.io/ej58f

 

Deby’s 37-year-old son Mahamat, who took the helm of the so-called “Transitional Military Council (CMT)”, named a government on Sunday comprising 40 ministers and deputy ministers and created a new national reconciliation ministry, military council spokesman Azem Bermandoa Agouna said in a televised statement.The transitional council is meant to be in place for 18 months and lead to democratic elections – a claim opposition parties have dismissed, calling the arrangement a coup.
https://aje.io/ej58f
https://aje.io/ej58f

Chad’s new military rulers named Albert Pahimi Padacke, who was runner-up in the Sahel country’s April 11 presidential election, as prime minister of a transitional government on Monday a week after President Idriss Deby’s battlefield death – an appointment quickly dismissed by an opposition leader.
https://aje.io/9scgq

 

こういった状況のもと、不安定な政治体制とともに Chad(チャド)国内で紛争がいまでも続いているんです。

 

参考

Al Jazeera, BBC News, International Crisis Group