Ko Tanaka 国連事務総長を目指す男ブログ






Sudan-South Sudan




Omar al-Bashir という人が 1989年から軍事統治を始め、2003年にあったDarfur という地域での紛争では、非人道的な民族虐殺などが行われたのが Sudan(スーダン) です


内戦における非人道的行為に対する海外からの経済制裁や石油産出地域であった南スーダンの独立による石油収入の減少などで、Sudan(スーダン)の経済はガタガタだったわけですが、2018年にOmar al-Bashir政権が国民への手当を減らしていくことで経費削減をはかったところ、2019年に 反Omar al-Bashir政権を訴える大規模なプロテストがおきます。


2019年に Omar al-Bashir は失脚して逮捕され、軍事政権とプロテストをおこした市民による勢力があとをついだんですね。


権力の集中を避けるために、大統領と首相が両方ともいる政治体制をとっている国は結構あるのですが、Sudan(スーダン)もそのうちの一つで、Omar al-Bashir元大統領のうらでの影響力をなくすために Abdalla Hamdok という人が新たな首相に選ばれます。


Sudan(スーダン) では、Abdalla Hamdok 首相と軍部、市民のあいだで安定した国家体制を築こうと奮闘しているのですが、Darfur という地域での紛争をふくめ、今だに混乱状況が続いているのです。



Al Jazeera English, BBC News, The New York Times



South Sudan is a country that just got independence in 2011.

When South Sudan was a part of Sudan under British and Egyptian rules, Britain controlled the south and the north differently, and this affects today's situation in the country. 


Britain treated the north, where the Muslims and the Arabs live, better than 

the south, where the Christians and various ethnic groups live. 

Because of this rule, economy, politics, education and healthcare systems were developed mainly in the north, but the south was left behind. Moreover, Britain let leaders from each ethnic group control their own group, and thus the difference of culture and ruling system among the ethnic groups became more prominent in the south while Britain remained its control over the whole country. 

In 1956 when British and Egyptian rules ended, Sudan became an independent country, but soon the south started rising as an antigovernmental power in the north.

In the begging, non-violent protests succeeded in delivering the demand of the south, but once Omar al-Bashir became a president in 1989,  the situation in Sudan turned to be more violent. Darfur conflict started in 2003 and escalated to genocide against certain ethnic groups.  

After a series of the civil conflicts, the South became independent in 2011. Although South Sudan is rich in oil, economic and political systems are still fragile, and thus conflicts in the newly established country still continue today.

In Sudan, on the other hand, U.S. economic sanctions and the loss of oil revenue in the southern area after the independence of South Sudan have affected Sudan's economy.  A mass protest happened when Omar al-Bashir tried to cut the spending by increasing the burden on civilians, and as a result, Omar al-Bashir was overthrown and arrested. 

The mixture of military and demonstrators in the protest took over Omar al-Bashir president, and  Abdalla Hamdok was appointed as a new prime minister. 

Although they have worked on stabilizing Sudan, the economic and political system in the country are still fragile. 

Now it should be easier to understand the recent news.