今日はインドの下にある島国 Sri Lanka(スリランカ)についてです！
Sri Lanka(スリランカ) で起きた紛争は
イギリスはスリランカ国内で民族ごとに違う統治をしていたこともあり、その名残がまだ続いていて、多数派の Sinhalese 民族による少数派の Tamils 民族への迫害が長いあいだあるんですね。
とくに1956年に Solomon Bandaranaike という人が新しい首相に選ばれると スリランカ国内を多数派の Sinhalese 民族の言語や宗教、文化に統一しようとしたんです。
こういった政治的、構造的な民族差別が続いたため、1976年に迫害を受けてきた少数派民族が Tamil Tigers という組織を結成し、自分たちの民族のスリランカからの独立を望んで戦い始めるわけです。
平和交渉も進められていたのですが、スリランカ政府と Tamil Tigers のあいだで武力紛争は長いあいだやまなかったんですね。
Note in English
The conflict in Sri Lanka is mainly between the majority Sinhalese who are mostly the Buddhist and the minority Tamils who are mostly the Hindu and Muslims.
While Britain had colonized Sri Lanka until 1948, the British brought a lot of Tamil speakers from India as workers for its coffee plantation and ruled differently based on ethnicities or religions.
This impact has remained in Sri Lanka after its independence in 1948, and the majority Sinhalese started political and systematic discrimination against the minority Tamils. In 1956, Solomon Bandaranaike was elected as a prime minister and started making Sinhalese the official language and created unequal civil service against Tamils.
To combat this unequal treatment, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), known as the Tamil Tigers, was formed and increased its influence over Tamil-dominated regions in the north and east of the country.
The Tamil Tigers started so-called the "Eelam War" in 1983 to demand its independence from Sri Lanka in the northern region, called Eelam. During this war, the Sri Lankan government was suspicious about India's support to the Tamil Tigers, and thus the relationship between the two countries became tense as Sri Lanka seized Indian fishing boats to prevent their military attacks.
In 1987, India even decided to directly intervene in the "Eelam War" in the name of peacekeeping to disarm both sides since India was concerned about the rise of Tamils in India and a mass refugee migration from Sri Lanka.
Despite the effort of a series of peace agreements between the Tamil Tigers and the Sri Lankan government, the military actions between the two had continued for a long time. Since the Tamil Tigers were labeled as terrorists by the Sri Lankan government, however, they struggled with getting foreign aids since the fear of terrorism rose after the 9/11 attack in 2001 and the government's restriction on the accessibility to the Tamil regions became harsher.
In 2009, the Sri Lankan government declared its winning of the war, but it does not mean the end of ethnic and religious frustration in the country.