今日は現在国際情勢で話題の Cameroon(カメルーン) についてです！
Al Jazeera English, BBC News, Crisis Group, The Washington Post
Note in English
Since Camerron is rich in natural resources, it has a history that multiple European countries had tried to colonize Cameroon.
In the 1910s, Britain and France took over German influence in Cameroon and divided the power in the country into 80% of French administrative zones and 20% of British zones in the west.
In the 1960s, French zones in Cameroon got independence and became the Republic of Cameroon, and British zones were divided between Cameroon and Nigeria.
In 1972, however, Cameroon was united as a unitary state, known as the United Republic of Cameroon.
A current president Paul Biya was elected and renamed the country to the Republic of Cameroon in 1984.
Nigeria and Cameroon started a border conflict over Bakassa Peninsula, which is rich in oil, in 1994, and the United Nations helped to make a resolution as a mediator. World Bank approved its support for oil and pipeline project in Cameroon and Chad in 2000. This action, however, was criticized due to its environmental damage.
In 2002, International Court of Justice gave sovereignty of the Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroon, but Nigeria rejected the decision. Nigeria agreed to withdraw its troops from the Bakassi Peninsula in 2006, but the tension still remains.
The constitution was modified to allow President Biya to run for a third term. Although he won the 2011 election, the opponents rejected the result and alleged fraud. He won his 7th term in 2018 and still remains as president today.
Since 2013, Boko Haram in Nigeria has expanded its power into Cameroon, and Chad has provided military support for Cameroon against Boko Haram.
Due to its colonial history, the majority of people in Cameroon speak French. Although French and English speaking people in Cameroon had been in harmony, people in the western region have complained about the use of French in courts and schools.
The Anglophone conflict began in 2016 when the government tried to oppress peaceful protests by English-speaking lawyers and teachers against marginalization by the country’s majority Francophone government.
More than 30 armed separatist groups were formed as “restorationists” to fight for their freedom and independence, but the Cameroonian government called them as “terrorists” in public statements.
Since separatists initially complained about the educational system taught in French, they attacked schools and involved citizens.
Now it should be easier to understand the recent news.