Ko Tanaka 国連事務総長を目指す男ブログ

紛争解決のための勉強メモ

前皇太子が逮捕!?ヨルダンでなにが?

2021年4月7日

今日の注目

f:id:globalissues:20210407081009g:plain

Jordan

今日は現在海外ニュースで注目されている Jordan(ヨルダン) についてです!

3分で読める本記事の構成は以下のとおりです。

ヨルダンと外国の関係

 Jordan(ヨルダン) はイギリスから独立した後、第二次世界大戦のあとに国連から独立国家として認められました。

1948年にイスラエルという国が誕生し、多くの難民が Jordan(ヨルダン) 国内に逃げ込んでくるんですね。でも、1994年にイスラエルと Jordan(ヨルダン) の緊張関係は平和条約をもって解消され、両国は水路の建設プロジェクトを共同で行っていくことを決めます。

ヨルダン国内の問題

Jordan(ヨルダン) は王国であり、国王と首相が国政を担っているんです。それでも、1990年代まで政党の設立が禁じられていたこともあり、国王に忠誠的な政治家が選挙で勝つ傾向にありました。

Jordan(ヨルダン) では首相がいるものの国王が圧倒的な権力をもっているため、平等な国政の運営を望む the Islamist Action Front などの反政府政党と国王のあいだで対立があるんですね。

今のヨルダン国王 Abdullah II は彼に忠誠を示す人々を優遇し、国民を代表するはずの議会にも大きく介入してきました。たとえば2011年にアラブの春が起きた時には、国民の政治への不満を解消するために首相を次々に交代することで対応してきたんです。

 

Jordan(ヨルダン) は中東のなかでも比較的安定した国ではあるのですが、この Jordan(ヨルダン) 国内の権力問題に加えて、イスラム国やアルカイダなどの過激派組織による攻撃も度々起こっているんです。

 

参考

Al Jazeera English, BBC News

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Note in English

Jordan was under British rule, but it was recognized as an independent sovereign kingdom after World War 2.

Along with the creation of Israel in 1948, a large number of refugees fled to Jordan.

Tension between Israel and Jordan was resolved through the 1994 peace treaty, and both countries have worked on a project to pipe water from the Red Sea to the shrinking Dead Sea. 

 

Within a kingdom, the 1989 election was held with only independent candidates since political parties had been banned since 1963. Although the creation of political parties has been allowed in Jordan in the 1990s, independent candidates who were loyal to the king Abdullah II won 2/3 of the seats in the 2003 parliamentary elections.

 

In Jordan, the kings apperently hold absolute power over the parliament. Thus, there has been a conflict between a king and opposition parties, such as the Islamist Action Front that complains about unequal constituency sizes and lack of real parliamentary power.

King Abdullah II became a Jordan's king in 1999 and has worked on the project to build a dam with the Assad regime in Syria since 2004 although Jordan is an ally with the United States. 

 

The violent attack by "Al-Qaeda in Iraq" has got serious in Jordan since 2005, and this made King Abdullah II become the first Arab leader to visit Iraq since the 2003 U.S. invasion of Iraq.

 

By using his absolute power, King Abdullah II has prefered people who are loyal to him and frequently made changes in parliament, such as dissolving parliament in the middle of the term.

 

When the Arab spring occured in 2011, Jordan experienced large-scale street protests as well, and King Abdullah II delt with the situation by appointing a new prime minister who was a former army general. The king, however, replaced the ex-army general with a judge at the International Court of Justice within a year, and the king kept replacing prime minister to meet the demand of citizens. 

 

Although Jordan is a relatively stable country in the Middle East, Jordan's king has suffered with the conflict with the oppositions as well as the attack by radical military groups, such as the ISIS, even today. 

 

Now it should be easier to understand the recent news.

www.aljazeera.com