Ko Tanaka 国連事務総長を目指す男ブログ


中南米を解説 !中米ハイチでなにが起こっているの?





今日は経済や政治の安定しない状況が続いている Haiti(ハイチ)についてです!



Haiti(ハイチ)はお隣の国 Dominican Republic(ドミニカ共和国)と同じ島に位置しているのですが、スペインが島を占拠した後にフランスがHaiti(ハイチ)を支配し始めたので、フランス語が公用語になっています。





この人種に基づく問題を解決することを名目に、アメリカは Haiti(ハイチ)への干渉を強めていきます。





しかし Haiti(ハイチ)の経済は安定しないままで、食糧危機に陥ったりして、国際機関やアメリカによる食糧支援や借金の軽減などが行われていくのですが、Haiti(ハイチ)は地震や台風などの自然災害が頻繁に起こったり、コレラ感染が流行ったりして、今だに安定した国家体制をなかなか築けずにいるわけです。



BBC News, Human Rights Watch



After Spain first occupied the entire island that includes now Haiti and Dominican Republic in order to develop plantation business with slaves, France gained control over the half of the island, which became Haiti. 

In 1801, former slaves rose up and conquered Haiti as well as abolishing slavery.


Haiti became independent in 1804 and was divided into a black-controlled north and a mulatto-ruled south. When Haiti was unified later, blacks were excluded from power, which led to the US intervention to Haiti lasted until 1947 in the name of resolving the racial division.

After a physician seized power in military coup and was elected president of Haiti, he declared himself president for life and started a dictatorship backed by military. This dictatorship ended when the leadership position was succeeded to his son, which caused popular discontent.

A civilian government was started under military control in the late 1980s, but the power friction between military and politics continued and caused US intervention, which was later replaced by UN peacekeepers. 

While promoting democracy in Haiti, the United Nations launched a project to disarm gang members by providing financial support and job training. Haiti's army had been disbanded from 1995 to 2012.

In 2008, riots occurred due to the high food prices, which led to food aid from the United States and World Bank. World Bank and International Monetary Fund also cancelled Haiti's debt with the consideration of Haiti's effort to economic reform and poverty reduction conditions.

These Haiti's instability is not only caused by the lack of stable political and economic system, but also caused by cholera outbreak and natural disasters, such as earthquake and hurricanes.

After the 2010 earthquake, the United States took control of the main airport in order to ensure orderly arrival of aid flights. 

Protests to complain about the government performance keeps happening as the Haitian government keeps failing to meet the basic needs of its people.