海外ニュースから国際問題を解説!シンガポールのユニークな住居政策とは?

2021年2月5日

今日の注目

f:id:globalissues:20210204105456p:plain

Singapore

今日は Singapore(シンガポール)の経済的成功 編の続きです!

3分で読める本記事の構成は以下のとおりです。

シンガポールのユニークな住居政策とは?

Singapore(シンガポール)では住居不足を改善するためにユニークな政策がとられています。

 

シンガポール政府は民間の土地へのアクセスを制限し、都市設計の研究結果を踏まえたうえで公共住宅を積極的に建設していったんですね。この政策の結果、今では国内の90%の土地を国が所有し、ほとんどの国民が政府所有の住宅施設に暮らしています。

 

土地の利用制限を設けることで、住宅の数が減り、住居の値段が上がるという理由から、一般的に政府が住居の建設や提供に関与するのは経済学的に良しとされていないのですが、シンガポール政府は国有の住居を99年契約で売りに出し、それを買った人々は、99年の契約期間はその住居に住み続けたり、ほかの人に売ったりすることが認められているんですね。

 

こういった経済の仕組みを国政にうまく取り入れることにより、住居の値段の高騰による貧困格差や非効率な土地の利用を防いでいるわけです。また、住居費を低くおさえて国民の生活費をおさえることで、賃金の上昇をしなくてすむようになり、これが海外企業の投資やビジネス展開を一層促しているのです。

 

ちなみに公共交通機関の使用を促すために、Singapore(シンガポール)では車の所有に高額な費用がかかるように設計されていたりします。

 

参考

BBC News, Insight Guides, Economics AltSimplified, World Bank Blog, Market Urbanism, The Economist, EHL Insights, NPR, Why Singapore works: five secrets of Singapore’s success by Jon S.T. Quah Anti-Corruption Consultant, Singapore

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英語版

Singapore got independence from Malaysia in 1965 with a prime minister Lee Kuan Yew after being occupied by Japan before World War 1, later controlled by British and then merged with Malaysia.

 

In 1967, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia and the Philippines formed the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).

In 1990 when Lee Kuan Yew stepped down from the long-time prime minister, the constitution was amended to prepare for an elected leader.

Although Singapore has had antigovernmental protests and a big income gap like other countries, the economic success is well known. 

Thanks to the good location for trading between Asia and Europe, Singapore has covered its disadvantage of the scarce natural resources and the small territory. Setting income tax very low as well as the few capital restrictions, it has increased foreign investment and business in the country.

 

Singapore's political stability is a big reason of its economic success. The laws are clear and predictable for citizens and consistent. This stable rules makes the laws more reliable and reduces the risk of corruption, which leads more investment. With good educational system in the country and good wage on public sectors, the national politics has maintained the high quality.

 

The government has avoided to rely on welfare state policies since they think that these policies are not efficient, for instance increasing income tax to fund the welfare policies affects the rich and reduces the amount of investment, which leads slower economic growth, and plus welfare policies increase an dependence on the state and decreases initiative and enterprise, which undermines the economic growth.

 

This tendency has been seen in some European countries and the United States, and China, Jamaica and Sri Lanka have actually cancelled their welfare policies due to the high cost. This is why Singapore thinks welfare policies should be applicable only for those who really need support. 

 

Singapore also has had an unique housing policies. To combat its housing shortage in the 1960s, an integrated land–housing supply and financing framework was introduced. 

 

The government limited private availability to land and actively built public buildings with the good care of urban planning. Due to this policy, 90% of land is owned by the country today, and this is helpful to manage efficiencies in construction and land use. 

 

In general, it is not a good idea for government to build and provide housing since land use regulation reduces housing supply and increase the price, but the government should let housing market lead the price.

 

Singapore, however, handled the dilemma in an unique policy. The state-owned land is sold for housing as 99 year leases to middle-income people, and these people are allowed to resell it at a market price or lease it to other people during the 99 year lease under the state. 

 

This not only prevents increasing poverty caused by the rise of housing price, but also prevents increasing wages along with the housing price, which keep labor cost low and attracts foreign companies for more investment. 

 

Singapore also makes owning a car expensive in order to encourage people to use public transportation more.