Ko Tanaka 国連事務総長を目指す男ブログ







今日は南米の Ecuador(エクアドル) についてです!



Ecuador(エクアドル) をふくめて中南米の国々は長い間、ギャングによる暴力事件が多い状況にあります。


”ギャング勢力を法整備などで押さえつける” という典型的な手段があるのですが、これは非効率であると言われていて、逆に状況を悪化させることがあるんです。たとえば、中米の El Salvador (エルサルバドル) という国では、12歳以上のギャング関連行為の容疑者を次々と逮捕していくなどの取り締まりを強化した結果、異なるギャング勢力のあいだでのつながりやギャングの組織力を強めてしまったんです。


こういったギャングの取り締まり強化が非効率であることの一つの理由として、”なぜギャングが生まれるのか” に取り組んでいないから、というのがあります。



そこで、Ecuador(エクアドル) の大統領であった Rafael Correa という人はユニークな方法でギャングによる暴力事件を減らそうと取り組みました。

2007年に、Ecuador(エクアドル) 内のギャングたちを ”国の正式な市民” として法的に認めたんです。反社会的勢力として色々な制限を受けるギャングたちを、社会の一員として取り込もうとしたわけです。

ギャング組織がメンバーの脱退を拒む一つの理由として、”政府に情報がもれて取り締まりがきつくなる” というのがあり、一度ギャングに入ってしまうと社会復帰を望むこと自体が身の危険に繋がることもあるわけです。







BORGEN magazine, CGTN America, Youth gov, IDB


Note in English

Ecuador, like many of other Latin American countries, had long struggled with its gang violence and the high rate of homicides. 

Ecuador's president Rafael Correa, however, chose an unique strategy to cope with this issue. Instead of repression, he legalized and legitimized street gangs in a country as formal citizens in 2007. 

Repressive approaches to combat gang violence are often considered ineffective and tend to casue more violence. For instance, El Salvador tried to fight against gangs by enforcing strict rules, such as actively arresting people over 12 who are suspected to gang activities. The case in El Salvador, however, led gangs to be more organized and to strengthen cooperation among other gangs.

One of the major reasons why repressive approaches do not work well is because they do not solve the cause of gang formation. Young people are more likely to join a gang if they grow up with poverty, in an unsafe environment, or a place where their friends are in a gang. Therefore, repression itself does not solve the core reason of gang formation without the effort to improve the quality of social community,. 

Ecuador, instead, worked on the social inclusion of gang members in order to reduce gang violence. Ecuador legitimized gang members as formal citizens and integrated them as cultural street organizations that collaborated with formal state institutions. For instance, gangs were included in sports and music events and job training opportunities that were organized by public and private agencies. Certain gangs were allowed to hold meetings among the gang members and interact with state officials. 

Since the fear of leaving gangs is strong when the gang might be tracked by the government,  the integration of gang members into a community was successful and led to their contribution to society through youth integration program. In addition to this, the government put as much emphasis on the creation of educational and employment opportunities. 

The combination of social integration and policy improvement in education and employment led Ecuador to reduce homicide rates. 

This, however, might not work in any countries since this kind of social rehabilitation program costs a lot of money and time, and thus it is difficult to maintain and requires certain economic strength.